|Cpl. Albert H. Cornils |
Cpl. Albert Herman Cornils was born on September 15, 1916, to Herman and Eva Cornils. With his brother, he lived at 5140 Benton Avenue in Downers Grove, Illinois, and attended Downers Grove High School. After high school, Albert worked as a wrapping clerk for a stationary company. In September 1940, Albert was talked into joining the Illinois National Guard at Maywood by his best friend from high school, Lewis Brittan. |
Twelve weeks later, Al was at Fort Knox, Kentucky, training with the regular army. It was there that he attended code breaker school. The biggest problem during the training was the inexperience of the officers. This situation was not resolved until the battalion was in the Philippine Islands.
Al believed that the training at Fort Knox did little to prepare the men of the battalion for what lay ahead of them in the Philippines, since there were not too many similarities between Kentucky and the Philippines. The one thing that Al remembered, about the training at Fort Knox, was that he made friends that would be his for a life time.
In late summer 1941, Al and the battalion went to Louisiana for one month of maneuvers. During the maneuvers, none of the soldiers had any idea that they had already been selected for overseas duty. It was only after the maneuvers had ended that the battalion was informed that their time in the army was being extended another one to six years. Al received an offer to be reassigned and be posted in Washington D.C., as a code breaker, but he turned it down to stay with his friends.
The battalion traveled west by train to San Francisco. Arriving there, they were taken by ferry to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. At Ft. McDowell, they were given physicals and inoculated, and those men found to have a minor medical condition were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date. Other men were simply replaced.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27th. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th. During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line. On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P. King, who apologized they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield. He made sure that they had what they needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner. Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons. The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea. They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance as they prepared to take part in maneuvers with the 194th Tank Battalion.
On December 1st, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against paratroopers. Two crew members had to be with their tank at all times. They received their meals from food trucks.
The morning of December 8, 1941, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield. The Army Air Corps took up at 8:30 and filled the sky. They had received word of the Japanese attack on Clark Airfield. As they sat in their tanks and half-tracks they watched as American planes filled the sky. At noon, the planes landed, to be refueled, and the pilots went to lunch.
At 12:45 in the afternoon on December 8, 1941, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the soldiers lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Airfield. That morning, they had been awakened to the news that the Japanese had bombed Pearl Harbor just hours earlier. The tankers were eating lunch when planes approached the airfield from the north. At first, they thought the planes were American. They then saw what looked like rain drops falling from the planes. It was only when bombs began exploding on the runways that the tankers knew the planes were Japanese. Albert remembered running toward a tree in an attempt to protect himself from enemy fire. To protect the equipment, everything was pulled out of the bivouac except for the trucks.
Some tankers attempted to shoot down the planes while riding in their half-tracks. Since the machine guns had not been sighted, most of them jammed. After the attack, the maintenance section was sent to the barrio of Bamban. Al would remain there for two weeks with Sgt. Albert McArthur and the maintenance truck while the tanks went north toward Lingayen Gulf on December 21st.
Along with the other members of Company B, Al worked to hold back the Japanese troops as long as possible. Al kept the maintenance truck moving and occasionally he would cannibalize other trucks for parts. The problem of inexperienced officers was resolved when General McArthur sent out a communique requesting the names of officers who were contributing to bad morale. Al, like the other members of his company, knew that the fight they were in would be lost, but he still fought on as long as possible.
When the Filipino and American Forces on Bataan surrendered, Albert became a Prisoner of War. He first heard of the surrender on the radio. Al, at this time, was near town of Mariveles. The next morning Al was awakened by Japanese soldiers. The soldiers urged the Americans to move by the point of their bayonets. The POWs were not allowed to take anything with them besides the clothes on their backs. If the soldier had slept in his shorts, that was all he was allowed to take.
It was near Mariveles that Al was reunited with the rest of the company. At the start of the march, the prisoners already were starving and in no shape to march the distance the Japanese expected them to march. The soldiers started the march on the day of the surrender, April 9, 1942.
The POWs were marched and then given a rest to be fed. When it started to rain, the Japanese did not wait to feed them and forced the prisoners to start marching again. From the lack of food, Al was out of his head. Three other members of Company B, Sgt. Ray Vandenbrouke, T/Sgt. Albert McArthur and Sgt. James Bainbridge saved his life.
Having seen a number of prisoners bayoneted, McArthur, Vadenbroucke and Bainbridge knew that Al's falling out would mean he would be killed. The three men took turns carrying Al, between them, on the march. Of these three men, only Ray Vadenbroucke would survive the war and life in the prison camps.
Al spent time at Camp O'Donnell and then Cabanatuan. The conditions at Cabanatuan were atrocious. The food was the main problem because it was a rice diet. A typical meal for the prisoners would be a soup made of rice and fish heads. Al believed that he was more fortunate than some men because he did not get dysentery. In the camp, he was assigned to Barracks #5, Group 3.
At this time, Al volunteered himself and Ray Vandenbrouke to go out on a work detail because Ray had malaria and Al knew that to survive they had to get out of the camp. The two men were sent to Clumpet to rebuild a bridge over the Pampanga River. The conditions on this detail were in Al's opinion the best he experienced as a POW.
Al was next sent to Lipa, Batangas, where he was assigned to building runways. The Japanese had extremely strict discipline for the prisoners there, but it was also there that Al received his first red cross package. From Lipa, Al was returned to Cabanatuan where he had his first attack of dysentery. Things in this camp were bad and fifty men were being buried a day. Al also came down with dry beriberi there. He believed what saved his life was that he would sun himself for hours.
Al was sent to Cabanatuan after the detail ended. According to medical records kept at the camp. Al was admitted to the camp hospital, on November 9, 1942,suffering from diarrhea. The hospital was known as "Zero Ward." It was given this name since most of the POWs who went into the hospital did not leave alive. He remained in the hospital until November 25, 1942, when he was discharged and returned to duty.
Albert was next sent to Fort McKinley. It was while he was a POW there that he saw his first American planes since the start of the war. The POWs watched as the American and Japanese planes engaged in dogfights high above their heads.
While a POW in the Philippines, Al experienced several acts of kindness on the part of the Japanese guards. Al had a toothache and his face was swollen on one side. The guard noticed this and took Al to a Filipino dentist to have the tooth worked on. He also experienced acts of kindness by two guards that the prisoners referred to as "Big Santa" and "Little Santa". These two guards did little things for the prisoners to make their lives a little easier.
From Camp McDowell Al was taken to Manila. Upon arrival at Manila, his detachment of POWs was suppose to be boarded onto the Arisan Maru. Since part of his group of POWs had not arrived, another detachment of POWs were boarded onto the ship. On October 1st, Al was boarded onto the Hokusen Maru for shipment to Formosa. As it turned out, the Arisan Maru was sunk by an American submarine on its way to Japan.
Albert and the other POWs were jammed into the Houkusen Maru's hold. The POWs on the ship were packed in the hold so tightly that they had to take turns sitting down. If someone died, the POWs would pass his body over their heads so that it could be taken on deck and thrown overboard. Other men lost their minds on the ship. Beneath them was coal that was being sent to Japan.
The ship sailed but dropped anchor at the harbor's breakwater. It remained there for three days and the temperatures in the hold rose to over 100 degrees causing some men to go crazy. The hatches of the hold were latched shut making it pitch black. In this situation, men went out of their minds. Albert kept his canteen filled with water and used it as a weapon. The sane POWs gathered in groups for protection with one standing guard.
As part of a ten ship convoy it sailed again on October 4th and stopped at Cabcaban. The next day, it was at San Fernando La Union, where the ships were joined by four more ships and five escorts. The ships stayed close to the shoreline to prevent submarine attacks which failed since, on October 6th, two of the ships were sunk.
The ships were informed, on October 9th, that American carriers were seen near Formosa and that American planes were in the area. The decision was made to head to Hong Kong. During this part of the trip, the ships ran into American submarines which sank two more ships.
The ship crisscrossed the China Sea before it arrived in Hong Kong on October 11, 1944. During the voyage, the prisoners heard the soundings of American submarines as they followed the transports. Al's body became covered with abscesses while in the ship's hold. When the ship arrived in Hong Kong, the POWs were allowed on deck to wash with salt water. This helped his sores to heal.
While in port, on October 16th, American planes appeared and bombed and strafed the ships in the harbor. None of the bombs hit the ship. On October 21st, the Hokusen Maru sailed for Takao, Formosa, arriving there on October 24, 1944.
For the next fifteen days, the POWs remained in the hold until the Japanese decided that they were too ill to continue the trip to Japan. On November 11th, they were disembarked and taken to a schoolhouse live. The camp was known as Inrin Temporary Camp. They were held in the camp until they were healthy enough to continue the trip to Japan. While there, he and the other POWs worked in gardens growing vegetables. This was the first decent food he and the other POWs had had in years. They also were treated better.
From Formosa, Al was sent to Japan on the Melbourne Maru. The ship sailed on January 14, 1945 and arrived at Moji on January 23rd. Al entered the country at Yokohoma Harbor. By train he was sent to Honshu in northern Japan to work in an open pit copper mine. The camp he was held in,
Al's job was to mine copper ore. To do this, Al was assigned a teenage Japanese boy as a helper. The two of them had to fill ore cars and then push them to the dumping area. It was hard work which was made harder by the cold weather in the winter.
Since the winters were harsh, the prisoners were issued warm clothing. The problem was that the POWs wore straw shoes which froze when they got wet. This resulted in Al getting frostbite on his feet. Food in the camp was scarce, but by this time even the Japanese people had little to eat.
How long Al remained at the camp is unknown. It is known that he was sent to