Garland





Pvt. Thomas Hodges Garland
Pvt. Thomas H. Garland was born on April 7, 1919, in Cleveland, Ohio, to Thomas A. Garland & Bertha Kiser-Garland.  His family resided in Newburgh Heights and later in Lakewood, Ohio.  He left school after completing his first year of high school.
    Thomas was drafted into the U.S. Army on March 28, 1941, and sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky, for basic training.  After completing basic training, he was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, where he was assigned to the 753rd Tank Battalion.  The battalion had been sent to the base from Ft. Benning, Georgia, but it did not take part in the maneuvers taking place there.
    When the maneuvers ended, the members of the 192nd Tank Battalion remained behind at Camp Polk.   Many had no idea why they were being kept there.  What they were told on the side of a hill was that they were being sent overseas. It was at this time that members of the battalion, 29 years old or older, were allowed to resign from federal service.  Thomas replaced a National Guardsman and was assigned to B Company.
    The battalion traveled west by train to San Francisco.  Arriving there, they were taken by ferry to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.  At Ft. McDowell, they were given physicals and inoculated.   Those men found to have a minor medical condition were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.

    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th, for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived at Honolulu on Sunday, November 2nd.  The soldiers were given leaves so they could see the island.  On Tuesday, November 4th, the ships sailed for Guam.
   
At one point, the ships passed an island at night.  While they passed the island, they did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  When they arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables.  The ships sailed the same day for Manila and entered Manila Bay on Thursday, November 20th.  They docked at Pier 7 and the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. 
  At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward King.  The general apologized that the men had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
   
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance.

  
    On December 1st, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against paratroopers.  Two crew members had to be with their tank at all times.  The morning of December 8, 1941, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield.  They had received word of the Japanese attack on Clark Airfield.  As they sat in their tanks and half-tracks they watched as American planes filled the sky.  At noon, the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch.  At 12:45, the tankers watched as planes approached the airfield from the north.  When bombs began exploding on the runways, they knew the planes were Japanese.
    
    At 12:45 in the afternoon on December 8, 1941, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor,  the soldiers lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Airfield.  That morning, they had been awakened to the news that the Japanese had bombed Pearl Harbor just hours earlier.  The tankers were eating lunch when planes approached the airfield from the north.  At first, they thought the planes were American.  They then saw what looked like rain drops falling from the planes.  It was only when bombs began exploding on the runways that the tankers knew the planes were Japanese.  The company remained at Clark Field for the next two weeks.

    The tank battalion received orders on December 21st that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf.   Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas.  When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.

    During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company crossed over the last bridge which was mined and about to be blown.  The 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it and then cover the 192nd's withdraw. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.


    The members of B Company made their way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.  It was from this barrio that the tankers started what they simply called "the march."
    The POWs made their way north from Mariveles.  The first five miles of the march were uphill.  At one point, the members of the company had to run past Japanese artillery firing on Corregidor.  They received little water and little food.  When they reached San Fernando, they were put into a bull pen.  In one corner of the bull pen was a trench the POWs were suppose to use as a washroom.  The surface of the trench was alive with maggots.  How long they remained in the bull pen is not known. 
    The Japanese ordered the POWs to form ranks.  They were marched to the train stationed and packed into small wooden
boxcars used to haul sugarcane.  Each car could hold forty men or eight horses.  The Japanese  packed 100 POWs into each car.  Those who died remained standing since there was no place for them to fall.  At Capas, the living left the cars and the dead fell to the floors.  They walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell.
   
Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino training base.  There was one water faucet for the entire camp.  Men literally died for a drink.  The death rate in the camp began to rise until as many as 55 men dying each day.  The burial detail worked non-stop to bury the dead.  Often, when they returned the next morning, the wild dogs had dug up the bodies or the bodies were sitting up in the graves.
    
The Japanese realized they had to do something to lower the death rate at the camp, so they opened a new camp at Cabanatuan.  It is not known if P.Z. was sent to the camp when it opened or if he was sent there after he returned from a work detail.
    While P.Z. was a prisoner at Cabanatuan, he became ill and entered the camp hospital on June 18, 1942.  According to medical records kept by the staff, P. Z. was suffering from dysentery and starvation.  The doctors did the best they could but had little to no medicine to treat the sick.  The Philippine Red Cross attempted to bring medical supplies to the camp for the POWs, but the Japanese refused to allow the supplies to be given to them.
    According to the record kept by the medical staff at the camp, Pvt. P.Z. Eldridge died of dysentery and malaria on Tuesday, July 21, 1942, at Cabanatuan POW Camp at approximately 1:15 P.M.   He was nineteen years old.   After his death, he was buried in the camp cemetery.
    After the war, the Remains Recovery Team identified the remains of Pvt. P.Z. Eldridge.  At his family's request, the remains were returned to the United States.  He was buried at the Burns Assembly of God Church Cemetery in Slocomb, Alabama.  On his headstone, his date of death was given as July 24, 1942.
   
    Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare. 
The tank battalions, on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.         
    B Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks from the tanks because of the smell.
      
    The night of April 8, 1942, the members of B Company circled their tanks.  Each tank fired one armor piercing shell into the engine of the tank in front of it.  The tankers next opened up the gasoline valves and dropped hand grenades into the turrets.  The next morning at 7:00 A.M. they became Prisoners of War.
    The members of B Company made their way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.  It was from this barrio that the tankers started what they simply called "the march."
    The POWs made their way north from Mariveles.  The first five miles of the march were uphill.  At one point, the members of the company had to run past Japanese artillery firing on Corregidor.  They received little water and little food.  When they reached San Fernando, they were put into a bull pen.  In one corner of the bull pen was a trench the POWs were suppose to use as a washroom.  The surface of the trench was alive with maggots.  How long they remained in the bull pen is not known. 
    The Japanese ordered the POWs to form ranks.  They were marched to the train stationed and packed into small wooden
boxcars used to haul sugarcane.  Each car could hold forty men or eight horses.  The Japanese  packed 100 POWs into each car.  Those who died remained standing since there was no place for them to fall.  At Capas, the living left the cars and the dead fell to the floors.  They walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell.
   
Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino training base.  There was one water faucet for the entire camp.  Men literally died for a drink.  The death rate in the camp began to rise until as many as 55 men dying each day.  The burial detail worked non-stop to bury the dead.  Often, when they returned the next morning, the wild dogs had dug up the bodies or the bodies were sitting up in the graves.
    
The Japanese realized they had to do something to lower the death rate at the camp, so they opened a new camp at Cabanatuan.  It is not known if Felix was sent to the camp when it opened or if he was sent there after he returned from a work detail.
    While Felix was a prisoner at Cabanatuan, most likely went out on one of the daily work details from the camp.  The POWs worked in rice paddies and planted rice.  They also worked in the camp farm.  He remained at the camp until July 1943, when his name appeared on a list of POWs being sent to Japan.  He may have volunteered to go to Japan, since many of the prisoners believed things in Japan could not be as bad as in the Philippines.
    On July 25th, trucks appeared at the camp and took the POWs to the Port Area of Manila.  They were boarded onto the Clyde Maru
The ship arrived at Santa Cruz, Zambeles, Philippines, the same day.  There, it was loaded with manganese ore.  It remained in port for three days before sailing on July 26th.  During this part of the voyage the Japanese allowed 100 POWs, at a time, to be on deck from 6:00 A.M. until 4:00 P.M.  The ship arrived at Takao, Formosa, on July 28th.
    At 8:00 A.M. on August 5th, the ship sailed again as part of a nine ship convoy.  The ships arrived at Moji, Japan, on August 7th, but the POWs didn't disembark until the next day.  They were broken up into 100 men detachments and taken by train to various POW camps.  Most of the POWs were taken to

Fukuoka Camp #17
    Fukuoka #17 was the worst POW camp a prisoner could be held at.  The stronger American prisoners preyed on the weaker POWs.  Many POWs traded their food rations for cigarettes which resulted in them starving to death.  They also worked in a condemned coal mine which the Japanese engineers were afraid to enter.
    Sometime during Felix's time in the camp, he became ill and taken to the camp hospital.  Since he could not work, the Japanese cut his food ration.  According to records kept by the medical staff, Pvt. Felix Flores died of pneumonia on Wednesday, December 2, 1943, at Fukuoka #17. 
After he died, his body was taken to a local crematory and cremated.  His ashes were put in a wooden box and buried in a common grave.
    After the war, since his name was on the box, Pvt Felix Flores' ashes were positively identified.  At the request of his mother, they were returned to Texas.  In 1948, Pvt. Felsix Flores was buried at Waldheim Cemetery in Tynan, Texas.
    

    Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare.  The tank battalions, on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.           B Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks from the tanks because of the smell.

    The night of April 9, 1942, the tankers received the order "crash."  They circled their tanks.  Each tank fired a armor piecing shell into the engine of the tank in front of it.  They also opened the gasoline cocks inside the tank compartments and dropped hand grenades into the tanks.  Most of the company waited in their bivouac for the Japanese to make contact, while others attempted to reach Corregidor which had not surrendered.
    After the Japanese made contact with B Company, the members of the company made their way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.  They were now officially Prisoners of War.  At Mariveles, the Japanese took blankets and other items from the POWs that they could use.  The tankers striped anything from their uniforms that indicated that they were tankers.  They heard the rumor that the Japanese were looking for them.
    From Mariveles, the tankers made their way north toward San Fernando.  They were given little food or water.  When they arrived at San Fernando, they were put in a bull pen.  In one corner was a slit trench that was the washroom for the POWs.  The surface of it moved from the maggots. 
    The POWs were ordered to form detachments of 100 men.  They were taken to the train station and packed into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane.  The cars were known as forty or eights since they could hold forty men or eight horses.  The Japanese put 100 POWs into each boxcar.  Those who died remained standing since there was no place to fall.  At Capas, the POWs disembarked and the dead fell to the floor of the cars.  The POWs walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell.
    Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino Army training base that the Japanese pressed into use as a POW camp.  There was one water faucet for the entire camp.  Disease among the POWs ran wild with as many as 55 POWs dying each day.  It is not known if Leonard remained in the camp or went out on a work detail.  The Japanese closed the camp and moved the POWs there to Cabanatuan.  It is not known if Thomas went right to the new camp, or if he was sent to the camp after returning from a work detail.
    It is known that Thomas was in the camp when names were posted of POWs being sent to Japan.  Thomas' name was on the list.  Trucks arrived at the camp and took the POWs to Bilibid Prison.
   Thomas remained at Bilibid for a little over a week, when his name appeared on a roster of POWs being sent to Japan.  The POWs were taken to the Port Area of Manila and boarded onto the Canadian Inventor.  The ship was given the name of "The Mati Mati Maru" since it's trip to Japan would take months.
    The ship sailed on July 4th but, after a day at sea, it returned to Manila because of boiler problems.  The ship remained in harbor for eleven days while the Japanese attempted to repair the boiler.  On July 16th the ship sailed again.  After a few days out at sea, it once again experienced boiler problems.  Since it could not keep up with the rest of the convoy, it was left behind to fend for itself.  It finally arrived at Takao, Formosa, on July 23rd.  The ship remained in port while salt was loaded onto it.
    On August 4th, the ship sailed again and made its way along the west coast of Formosa and arrived at Keelung, Formosa, on August 5th.  It remained at Keelung for twelve days while the Japanese worked on repairing the boiler again.  When the repairs were finished it sailed o August 17th to the the Ryuku Islands.  Once again it was having boiler problems and repairs were attempted again.
    The Canadian Inventor made it to Naha, Okinawa, where more repairs were attempted.  The ship finally reached Moji, Japan, on September 1st.  The trip to Japan had taken 62 days with the deaths of six POWs.  When they disembarked the ship, the POWs were broken up into to detachments and taken to the train station.

    Thomas' detachment was taken by train to
Omine Machi.  Upon arriving at the camp, he was given the POW identification number of 396.  The POWs in the camp worked in a coal mine.  This was the Japanese propaganda camp which meant the POWs were treated a little better than the POWs in the other camps.  When the Red Cross visited, this was the camp they were taken to see how the POWs were treated, but they were not allowed to talk to the POWs.
    Thomas was liberated from the camp on September 15, 1945, and taken to Wakayama, Japan.  There, the former POWs were boarded onto the U.S.S. Consolation and returned to the Philippines for medical treatment.  When he boarded the ship, records indicate he was in good health, but that he was malnourished.  In the Philippines, he was promoted to Tec 3 which meant he held the rank of staff sergeant. 

    Thomas was returned to the United States on the Dutch ship, the S.S. Klipfontein arriving at Seattle, Washington, on October 27, 1945.  The men were sent to Ft. Lewis,Washington, for more medical treatment. 
    Thomas discharged from the Army on May 3, 1946.  He married and became the father of two daughters and a son.  It appears his first marriage ended in divorce.  Thomas married a second time in 1956, and that marriage also ended in divorce.  He married Vera M. Cook on June 16, 1960, and worked as a car salesman at a Chevrolet dealer.
    Thomas H. Garland died on January 28, 1981, in Cahrdon, Ohio.  He was buried at Chardon Municipal Cemetery.




 

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