1st Lt. Willie Stokes Heard Jr.

    1st Lt. Willie S. Heard Jr. was born on September 8, 1913, to Willie S. Heard Sr. & Maud Howell-Heard in Quachita, Louisiana.  With his three brothers, one of whom was his twin, he grew up at 110 Filhiol Avenue and attended school in West Monroe, Louisiana.  He was a member of the ROTC program and graduated from Louisiana State University, in Baton Rouge in 1933, with this twin brother, Howell.  He graduated college and attended law school.  He worked as a lawyer.

    Willie joined the 192nd Tank Battalion after maneuvers in Louisiana in the late summer of 1941.  He was a volunteer from the 753rd Tank Battalion which had been sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana to provide tanks and men as replacements to the battalion.  Upon joining the battalion, he was assigned to B Company as a B Company's executive officer.

    Traveling west over four different train routes, the 192nd arrived in San Francisco where they were ferried to Angel Island.  They received their inoculations for duty in the Philippine Islands.  On Monday, October 27th, the battalion boarded one ship, of a three ship convoy, and sailed for Hawaii.  They arrived in Hawaii on Sunday, November 2nd.  There was a two day layover before the ships sailed for Guam on Tuesday, November 4th.  During this part of the trip, the escort cruiser took off after a ship when smoke was spotted on the horizon.  It turned out the ship was from a friendly country.  At Guam, the ships loaded water, vegetables, bananas, and coconuts.  The ships sailed the same day and arrived at Manila on Thursday, November 20th, Thanksgiving Day.

    The tank companies were taken by bus to Ft. Stotensburg.  When they arrived at the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward King.  King made sure that they everything was in order in their bivouac.  He then made sure they had their Thanksgiving dinner before he had his.  The tankers would spend a little over two weeks preparing their equipment for use on maneuvers.
   On December 1st, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against paratroopers.  Two crew members had to be with their tank at all times.  The morning of December 8, 1941, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield.  They had received word of the Japanese attack on Clark Airfield.  As they sat in their tanks and half-tracks they watched as American planes filled the sky.  At noon, the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch.  At 12:45, the tankers watched as planes approached the airfield from the north.  When bombs began exploding on the runways, they knew the planes were Japanese.

    The morning of December 8th, December 7th on the other side of the international date line, the soldiers heard the news of the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor.  Willie and the other tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard against paratroopers.  The rest of the morning American planes filled the skies.  At 12:30 the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch.  Fifteen minutes later, Japanese planes appeared over the airfield wiping out the American Army Air Corps.

    During the attack, the tankers could do little more than watch since they had no weapons to use against aircraft.  Some of the half-tracks had .50 caliber machine and fired on the planes,  They were credited with shooting down several planes.

    On December 20th, the 192nd was ordered north toward Lingayen Gulf where Japanese troops were landing.  A platoon of the battalion's tank would fight the first tank battle of WWII, involving American tanks, on December 22nd.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.
    The tankers were fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and December were at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th.  While there, the bridge over the Pampanga River was destroyed, they were able find a crossing over the river.

    During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company crossed over the last bridge which was mined and about to be blown.  The 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it and then cover the 192nd's withdraw. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.
    Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare. 
The tank battalions , on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.

    B Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.

    On April 9, 1942, the order crash was given and the tankers circled their tanks.  Each tank fired one round into the engine of the tank in front of it.  The tankers then opened the gasoline cocks, allowed the compartments to fill with gas before dropping hand grenades into the tanks.

    Willie and the other members of his platoon made their way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.  It was from this barrio that he started what became known as the "death march". 

    During the march the Prisoners of War received little water and no food for days.  They made their way north to San Fernando.  Once there, they were packed into small wooden boxcars that were used to haul sugarcane.  Each car could hold eight horses of forty men;  100 men were packed into each car.  When the train arrived at Capas, the men who had died fell to the ground as the living climbed out of the cars.  From Capas, Willie walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell.

   Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino Army Base.  The Japanese put it into use as a POW camp.  There was one water spigot for 12,000 POWs.  Men died while waiting for a drink.  The death rate in the camp was as high as fifty men a day.

   In May, the Japanese opened a new camp at Cabanatuan in an attempt to lower the number of deaths.  Willie was sent to this camp.  He remained there until he was selected to go out on a work detail. 

    The POWs boarded onto the Interisland Steamer, on July 1, 1942, at Manila and were taken to Davao, Mindanao.  The POWs arrived at Davao on July 6th.  The camp was about 36 miles from Davao City.

     At the camp, the POWs were housed in eight barracks that were about 148 feet long and about 16 feet wide.  A four foot wide aisle ran down the center of each barracks.  In each barracks, were eighteen bays.  Twelve POWs shared a bay.  216 POWs lived in each barracks.  Four cages were later put in a bay.  Each cage held two POWs.
    The camp discipline was poor.  The American commanding officer changed frequently, and the junior officers refused to take orders from the senior hours.  Soon, this trickled down to the enlisted men who began speaking anyway they wanted to the officers.  The situation improved because the majority of POWs realized that the only way they would survive was to be disciplined. 

    At first, the work details were not guarded.  The POWs plowed, planted, and harvested the crops.  The sick POWs made baskets.  In April 1943, the POWs working conditions varied.  Those working the rice fields received the worst treatment.  They were beaten for not meeting quotas, misunderstandings between the POWs and guards, and a translator who could not be trusted to tell the truth.

    During his time at Davao, Willie built runways and worked on a farm.  When it became apparent to the Japanese that American forces were approaching the Philippines, they began to transfer the POWs back to Manila.  On June 6, 1944, the Japanese sent the POWs to Lasang, Mindano, by truck.  Once there, the POWs were boarded onto the Yashu Maru and held in the ship's front holds for six days before it sailed.  The ship sailed on the 12th and dropped anchor off Zamboanga, Mindano. for two days before sailing for Cebu City arriving on June 17th.  The POWs were taken off the ship and held in a warehouse.  The POWs were returned to the dock and boarded an unnamed ship and arrived at Manila on June 25th.

    Willie was returned to Cabanatuan until he was selected to shipment of Japan.  Only those POWs considered to ill to be sent to Japan would remain in the Philippines.

    Willie and other prisoners were marched to the Port Area of Manila.  His group was scheduled to sail on the Hokusen Maru, but since all the POWs had not arrived at the pier and the ship was ready to sail, the POWs from another group were boarded in their place.

    Willie's detachment of POWs were boarded onto the Arisan Maru on October 11th.  The ship sailed but instead of heading to Japan, it headed south to Palawan Island.  In a cove off the island, the ship hid from American planes.  During this time, the ship was attacked by American planes.

    The POWs in the hold discovered that the Japanese had removed the lights from the hold, but that they had not turned off the power.  Some of the prisoners hotwired the ventilation system into the lighting system.  For several days the POWs had fresh air.  When the Japanese discovered what had been done, they cut off the power.

    A few days later, the Japanese realized that unless they did something many of the POWs would die.  To solve the problem, the Japanese transferred POWs into the ship's number two hold.  During the transfer one POW attempted to escape and was shot.

    On October 20th, the ship returned to Manila.  The next day, October 21, 1944, the Arisan Maru sailed for Takao, Formosa, as part of a twelve ship convoy.  On October 24th, the ship was in the Bashi Channel of the South China Sea.  That evening,  twenty POWs were on deck preparing dinner.  Suddenly, the Japanese on deck ran toward the bow of the ship and watched a torpedo pass in front of it.  Moments later the Japanese ran to the stern of the ship as another torpedo missed the ship.

      The ship shook and came to a dead stop in the water.  It had been hit by two torpedoes amidships.  A Japanese guard aimed his machine-gun at the POWs and  fired at them.  The POWs dove into the ship's holds.  After they were in the holds, the Japanese put the hatch covers on but did not tie them down.  A short time later, the Japanese abandoned ship.  Before they left, they cut the  rope ladders hanging down into the holds.

    Since the hatch covers had not been tied down, some of the POWs in the second hold made their way back on deck.  These men reattached and dropped rope ladders to the men in the holds.  For the next two hours, the ship remained afloat.   The POWs who could not swim stuffed themselves with food from the ship's kitchen.  Others attempted to find anything that would float.  35 POWs swam to another Japanese ship, but they were pushed away with poles and hit with clubs.

    As the ship sank lower in the water, many POWs tried to escape.  At some point, the ship split in two.  Some POWs found a lifeboat that had been abandoned by the Japanese.  Since it had no oars, they could not maneuver it.

    A Japanese destroyer came near to the boat and looked like it was about to open fire on it.  The POWs played dead and at the last second the ship turned away.   The men in the boats listened to the cries for help.  As time went on, there were fewer cries.  Then there was silence.  The next morning two more POWs, who were floating on some wreckage, made it to the boat.

    Of the 1803 men who boarded the Arisan Maru, only nine survived the its sinking.  Eight of these men survived the war.  1st Lt. Willie S. Heard was not one of them.

    Since he was lost at sea, 1st Lt. Willie S. Heard Jr.'s name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside Manila.  His parents also had a headstone placed in Hasley Cemetery in West Monroe, Louisiana, in his memory.

    It should be mentioned that 1st Lt. Willie S. Heard's brother, Lt. (jg) Travis H. Heard, also died in WWII in the Pacific.  1st Lt. Willie Heard's name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery at Manila.




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