Pvt. Bernard William Johnson

    Pvt. Bernard W. Johnson was the son of Joseph M. Johnson & Mary E. Martin-Johnson and was born on November 11, 1918, in Wellsville, Ohio.  With his two brothers, he grew up at 3200 Audubon Boulevard in Cleveland, Ohio.  He worked as an inspector at a federal building.

    Bernard was inducted into the U.S. Army on March 28, 1941, in Ohio.  He trained at Fort Riley, Kansas and Camp Polk, Louisiana.  At some point, he was assigned to the 753rd Tank Battalion.  In the fall of 1941, he volunteered to replace a National Guardsman who was released from federal service in the 192nd Tank Battalion.  He was assigned to B Company.

    The battalion travelled west over four different train routes.  At Angel Island, the members of the battalon were inoculated for duty overseas.  The battalion traveled west by train to San Francisco.  Arriving there, they were taken by ferry to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.  At Ft. McDowell, they were given physicals and inoculated.  Those men found to have a minor medical condition were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th, for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived at Honolulu on Sunday, November 2nd.  The soldiers were given leaves so they could see the island.  On Tuesday, November 4th, the ships sailed for Guam.
At one point, the ships passed an island at night.  While they passed the island, they did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  When they arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables.  The ships sailed the same day for Manila and entered Manila Bay on Thursday, November 20th.  They docked at Pier 7 and the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. 
   At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    The first week of December, 1941, the tankers were ordered to Clark Field to assigned locations.  At all times, two members of each tank crew or half-track crew had to remain with their tank or half-track.

    The morning of December 8, 1941, the tankers were at the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  All morning the sky was filled with American planes.  At noon the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch.  At 12:45, the tankers were eating lunch when the saw a formation of 54 planes approach the airfield from the north.  At first, they thought the planes were American.  Then, as they watched, raindrops appeared under the planes.  It was only when bombs began exploding on the runways did the tankers knew the planes were Japanese.

    The tank battalion received orders on December 21st that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf.   Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas.  When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.

    The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th.  On January 1st, conflicting orders were received by the defenders who were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5.  Doing this would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan.  General Wainwright was unaware of the orders since they came from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff. 
    Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River.  Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted.  From January 2nd to 4th, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.

    During the withdraw into the peninsula, the night of January 6th/7th, the 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it, cross a bridge, and then cover the 192nd's withdraw over the bridge. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.          
    During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company crossed over the last bridge which was mined and about to be blown.  The 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it and then cover the 192nd's withdraw. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.   
    Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare. 
The tank battalions , on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.
    B Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.
    On April 9, 1942, Bernard became a Prisoner of War when Bataan was surrendered to the Japanese.  Bernard and the other members of B Company made their way to Mariveles.  It was from this barrio that he started what became known as the death march to San Fernando.  There, the POWs were packed into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane.  The cars could hold forty men or eight horse.  The Japanese packed 100 POWs into each car.  Those who died remained standing until the living left the boxcars at Capas.  From Capas, the POWs walked the last few miles to Camp O'Donnell.

    Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino training base.  There was only one water faucet for the entire camp.  After arriving there, the death rate among the POWs soared.  It is known that Bernard went out on a work detail to get out of the camp.

    The work detail was sent to Clark Airfield.  The POWs built revetments to protect planes and runways.  The Japanese guards encouraged the POWs to take their time when digging.  The guards didn't care how much dirt the POWs moved all they had to do is look busy.  The reason the guards did this was because they liked the detail and wanted to stretch it out as long as possible.  The only time the POWs were expected to work hard was when big shots came around to expect the work.

    The POWs also had to dig out volcanic rock which was used in the construction of runways.  They did this work until August 1944.  How the POWs did this was to sift the sand through a screen trapping the rocks.  The rocks were used as base material for new runways for heavy bombers.  When the rock ran out, the Japanese engineers told the POWs to use sand for the base material for the last half of the runway.  

    The first time a Japanese heavy bomber landed on the runway it sped across the first half of the runway.  When it hit the second half of the runway, the bomber's carriage suddenly sank out of sight and the bomber flipped over.  The prisoners hid their laughter.

    At some point, Bernard was sent to Bilibid Prison because he was ill.  Medical records indicate Bernard was admitted from Building 12 which had the designation of being "the Casual Group." It is known that on September 1, 1944, Bernard was  admitted to the hospital ward suffering from acute nephritis which is a inflammation of the kidneys.  How long he was hospitalized is not known.  In early December, the Japanese ordered the American medical staff at the prison to put together a list of POWs healthy enough to be sent to Japan.

    The morning of December 12, 1944, roll was taken and the names of the men selected were read to the POWs.  Bernard's name was called.  That evening the POWs were allowed to say goodbye to their friends.  At 4 a.m., the POWs were woke and fed breakfast.  1,619 POWs were marched to Manila's Pier 7.

    As the POWs stood on the dock, Japanese women and children were boarded onto the ship.  In addition, Japanese seamen who had survived the sinking of their ships were boarded.  It was not until that evening that POWs were boarded onto the Oryoku Maru.  The ship was part of MATA-37 convoy.

   The Americans saw that the American bombers were doing a job on the Japanese transports.  There were at least forty wrecked ships in the bay.  When the POWs reached Pier 7, there were three ships docked.  One was a old run down ship, the other two were large and in good shape.  They soon discovered one of the two nicer ships was their ship. 

     It was at this time the POWs were allowed to sit down.  Many fell asleep and slept until 3:45 in the afternoon.  About 5:00 PM the POWs boarded the Oryoku Maru for transport to Japan. 

    It is not known which hold Bernard was held in, but the sides of the hold had two tiers of bunks that went around its diameter.  The POWs near the hatch used anything they could find to fan the air to the POWs further away from it.   

    The ship left Manila on December 14th, at about 3:30 AM, as part of the MATA-37 a convoy bound for Takao, Formosa.  By the swells in the water, the POWs could tell that the ship was in open water.
    It was at 8:00 A.M. that the first wave of American planes attacked the ship. 
After the first raid, the ship was left alone by "playing possum" in the water.  The fighters went after the other ships in the convoy.   Two more attacks took place that day.

    The POWs received their first meal at about 3:30 that afternoon.  Meals on the ship consisted of a little rice, fish, and water.  Three fourths of a cup of water was shared by twenty POWs.  The prisoners had just eaten when they heard the sounds of guns.  At first, they thought the gun crews were just drilling since they had not heard any planes.  It was only when the first bomb hit that they knew it was no drill.  The POWs heard the change in the planes' engines sound as they began their dive toward the ships in the convoy.  Explosions were taking place all around the POWs.  Bullets from the planes ricocheted in to the hold causing many casualties.  In all, the POWs would have to sweat out seven or eight air raids.  The one result of the raids was no evening meal.
    Each attack seemed to follow the same pattern.  30 or 50 planes attacked for about twenty minutes followed by a lull of twenty or thirty minutes.  Then, the next attack began and repeated the pattern.

    At four-thirty in the afternoon, the ship experienced its worse attack.  It was hit at least three times, by bombs, on its bridge and stern.  Most of the POWs were wounded by ricocheting bullets or shrapnel from explosions.  Bombs that exploded near the ship sent turrets of water over it.  Bullets from the fighters hit the metal hull plates at an angle that prevent most from penetrating the hull.  Somewhere on the ship a fire had started but was put out after several hours.

    In the hold the POWs crowded together.  Chips of rust fell on them from the ceiling.  After the raid, they took care of the wounded before the next attack started.  A Catholic priest, Fr. Duffy, began praying, "Father forgive them.  They know not what they do."  

    When the attack resumed, the ship bounced in the water from the explosions.  The POWs in the holds lived through seventeen attacks from American planes before sunset.  Overall, six bombs hit the ship.  One hit the stern of the ship killing many.  The final attack ended about 5:00 that evening.

    Sometime after midnight, the POWs heard noise on deck as the women and children were unloaded.  During the night, the medics were ordered out of the holds by the guards and ordered to tend to the Japanese wounded.  One of the medics recalled that the dead, dying, and wounded were everywhere.  The moaning and muttering of men who were losing their minds kept the POWs up all night.  That night 25 POWs died in the hold.  
    The ship reached Subic Bay at 2:30 in the morning of December 15th.  It was a suitable landing place.
    The ship steamed in closer to the beach and dropped anchor.  The POWs were told that they would be unloaded after daybreak.  The POWs were still sitting in the holds hours after dawn when they heard the sound of planes.  When the Navy planes resumed their attack, the attacks came in waves.  The POWs lived through three more attacks.  The POWs noted the attack was heavier then the day before.
    At about 8:00 A.M., a Japanese guard yelled to the POWs, "All go home; Speedo!"  He also shouted that the wounded would be the first to be evacuated.  As the POWs were abandoning ship, the planes returned.  The pilots had no idea that the ship was carrying POWs.  It was only when they saw the large number of men climbing from the ship's holds that they knew it was a POW ship and stopped the attack.

    About a half hour later, the ship's stern started to really burn.  Those POWs still living made their way on deck and went over the side and swam to shore near Olongapo, Subic Bay, Luzon.  As they swam to shore, which was about 300 to 400 yards away.  Japanese soldiers fired on the POWs  to keep them in the water so they would not escape.
    The men in the water began waving wildly at the planes.  Seeing this, the pilots came in low.  One plane banked and flew lower over the men.  He waved his wings to let them know he knew they were Americans. Rejoined the other planes and they flew off.  

    It is not known if Bernard was killed inside the hold from ricocheting bullets or shrapnel from one of the rockets that hit the ship.  It is not known if he died in one of the ship's holds, or if he was killed while swimming to shore.  What is known is that Pvt. Bernard Johnson died on December 15, 1944, at Olongapo Naval Station, Subic Bay, Philippine Islands.
     After the war, Pvt. Bernard Johnson's name was placed on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery at Manila.  His parents also had a headstone placed at Saint Elizabeth Cemetery, Wellsville, Ohio.



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