Jordan

Sgt. Lawrence John Jordan


     Sgt. Lawrence J. Jordan was born in Montana on August 10, 1919, the second of three children born to Anthony & Agnes Jordan.  His family moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he lived at 2038 West Cullom Avenue.  He graduated from Lake View High School and worked as a silver smith at a wholesale silver company.

     He joined the Illinois National Guard as a member of the 33rd Tank Battalion in Maywood, Illinois.  On November 25, 1940, Larry was sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky, with his company.  At Fort Knox, Larry was  taught to operate all the equipment used by the company.  During this time Larry became a tank commander.

    At Ft. Knox, Larry participated in boxing.  He fought fellow B Company member, John Cahill, for the Kentuckiana Welter-weight Title.  Larry had been a Catholic Youth Organization Inter-City Boxing Champion in Chicago.
    In the late summer of 1941, Larry took part in maneuvers in Louisiana.  After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk, Louisiana, instead of returning to Ft. Knox.  None of the members of the battalion had any idea why they were there.  On the side of a hill, the members learned they were being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM.  Within hours, many men had figured out they were being sent to the Philippine Islands. 
    The decision for this move may have been made as early as August 1941, and was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
     When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.  Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
    Many of the members of the battalion were given furloughs so that they could say goodbye to family and friends.  They returned to Camp Polk and traveled by train to San Francisco, California.  From San Francisco, the tankers were ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  On the island, they were given physicals and inoculated for tropical diseases.  Some men were held back for health issues but scheduled to join the battalion at a later date.  Others were simply replaced.
    The battalion traveled by train to San Francisco, California, and was ferried, on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Fort McDowell on Angel Island, where the soldiers were inoculated and given physicals by the battalion's medical detachment.  Those who had medical issues were replaced or scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.
    The 192nd boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Dateline.  On Saturday, November 15, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
    At the fort, the tankers were met by General Edward P.  King, who welcomed them and made sure that they had what they needed.  He was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and that they had to live in tents.  The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they arrived.
    For the next seventeen days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline from their weapons.  They also spent a large amount of time loading ammunition belts.  The plan was for them, with the 194th Tank Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.

    The first week of December, 1941, the tankers were ordered to Clark Field to assigned locations.  At all times, two members of each tank crew or half-track crew had to remain with their tank or half-track.
    The morning of December 8, the officers of the battalions met and were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor hours earlier.  The 192nd letter companies were brought up to full strength at the perimeter of Clark Field. 
    American planes took off at 8:30, and all morning long they filled the sky.  At noon, all the planes landed. parked in a straight line outside the mess hall, and the pilots went to lunch.  At 12:45 planes approached the airfield from the north.  The tankers on duty at the airfield counted 54 planes.  When bombs began exploding, the men knew the planes were Japanese.  After the attack the 192nd remained at Ft. Stotsenburg for almost two weeks before they were than sent to the Lingayen Gulf area where the Japanese had landed. 

    The tank battalion received orders on December 21 that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf where the Japanese were landing.   Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas.  When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.   
    Larry was the tank commander of the third tank in the column.  The next day, the platoon's tanks came into contact with the Japanese.  Because the road was surrounded by rice paddies, the tanks were restricted to the road.

    The tanks came under heavy enemy fire.  During the attack the tank of Larry's commanding officer, 2nd Lt. Ben Morin, was knocked out.  The remaining tanks attempted to come to his aid but withdrew because of the heavy fire.  Larry was wounded at this time.  It is not known if he was hospitalized or how long he was treated.

    What is known is that is on December 23 and 24, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27.

    The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28 and 29.  On January 1, conflicting orders were received by the defenders who were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5.  Doing this would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan.  General Wainwright was unaware of the orders since they came from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff. 
    Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River.  Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted.  From January 2 to 4, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.

    During the withdraw into the peninsula, the night of January 6/7, the 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it, cross a bridge, and then cover the 192nd's withdraw over the bridge. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.

   Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare.  The tank battalions , on January 28, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.

    B Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.

    When Bataan was surrendered on April 9, 1942, at the age of 21, Larry became a Prisoner of War with most of the other members of his company.  He took part in the death march limping the entire length due to shrapnel wounds in one leg.  He was interred at Camp O'Donnell
which was an unfinished Filipino Army Base that the Japanese put into use as a POW camp and believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs. 
    When they arrived at the camp, the camp commandant told the Americans that they were not prisoners of war but captives.  The Japanese also took away any extra clothing that the POWs carried with them and refused to return it.  The POWs were searched and anyone found with Japanese money were separated from the other POWs and sent to the guardhouse.  These POWs were accused of looting the bodies of dead Japanese soldiers.  Over several days, gunshots were heard coming from southeast of the camp.
    There was only one water faucet for the entire camp and men stood in line from 2 to 8 hours waiting for a drink.  The Japanese guard in charge of the spigot would turn it off, for no reason, and the next man in line would have to wait up to four hours for it to be turned on again. Water for cooking food had to be hauled three miles to the camp. Mess kits could not be cleaned.  Since there was no water to wash their clothing, the POWs threw away soiled clothing and stripped the dead of their clothing.  Few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing.
    Since most of the POWs had dysentery, the slit trenches overflowed which resulted in flies being everywhere in the camp including the camp kitchen and in the food.  The camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant which also caused diseases to spread.  When the ranking American doctor presented a letter with the medicines and medical supplies they needed to treat the sick, the camp commander, Captain Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, told him never to write another letter.  He also said that the only thing he wanted to know about the POWs were their names and serial numbers after they died.
    The Archbishop of Manila sent a truck full of medical supplies to the camp, but the Japanese refused to let it into the camp.  When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross told a Japanese lieutenant that they could set up an 150 bed hospital for the POWs, he was slapped in the face by the lieutenant.  Medicines sent to the camp by the Red Cross were confiscated by the Japanese for their own use.
    The POWs called the hospital "Zero Ward" because most of the men who entered it never came out alive.  The Japanese were so afarid of contracting an illness that they put a barbed wire fence up around it.  The POWs in the hospital lay elbow to elbow on the floor and operations were performed with knives from mess kits.  Only one medic, out of every six assigned to treat the sick, was healthy enough to perform his duties.
    Each morning, the POWs walked around the camp and collected the bodies of the dead and placed them under the hospital building.  To clean the ground, the POWs moved the bodies, scrapped the ground,  put down lime to sterilize the ground, moved the bodies back, and repeated the process where the bodies had been.  It took two to three days to bury a man after he died.
    Any POW, if he could walk, went out on a work detail for the day such as the one collected wood for the POW kitchen.  Some POWs went out on work details which lasted for months to get out of the camp.  The worse detail a man could be put on was the burial detail.  On this detail, two POWs carried a dead man to the camp cemetery.  Once there, they put the body in a grave and held the body down with a pole, since the water table was high, and covered it with dirt.  The next morning, when the burials resumed, the dead were often sitting up or had been dug up by wild dogs.

   To get out of the camp, Larry was selected to rebuild bridges on a work detail under Lt. Col. Theodore Wickord's command.  Wickord attempted to the detail with men from the 192nd, 194th, and 17th Ordnance.  When the Japanese realized what he was doing, they stopped him.

    On this detail, Larry and the other POWs heard that ten POWs on another detail at a nearby sawmill had been executed because one man had escaped.  The POWs were forced to dig their own graves and then machine gunned as they stood in the graves. 

    One day, Larry and Jim Bashleben were on a break when a guard known as "Nikki" to the POWs began to ask them questions about their homes.  Nikki looked at Larry and Bashleben and told each man that after the war was over, he was going to visit each man at his home.  Under his breath, Larry said to Bashleben that if Nikki showed up at his front door, a bullet would be waiting for him. 

    After the detail was completed, Larry was sent to Cabanatuan.  On December 12, 1942, Larry was selected to go out on a work detail to Nichols Field to build runways.  The POWs on the detail were housed at the Pasay School in eighteen rooms.  Thirty POWs were assigned to a room.  The POWs were used to extend and widen runways for the Japanese Navy.   The plans for this expansion came from the American Army which had drawn them up before the war.  The Japanese wanted a runway 500 yards wide and a mile long going through hills and a swamp.
    Unlike the Americans, the Japanese had no plans on using construction equipment. Instead, they intended the POWs to do the work with picks, shovels, and wheel barrows.  The first POWs arrived at Pasay in August 1942.  The work was easy until the extension reached the hills.  When the extension reached the hills, some of which were 80 feet high, the POWs flattened them by hand.  The Japanese replaced the wheel barrows with mining cars that two POWs pushed to the swamp and dumped as land-fill.  As the work became harder and the POWs weaker, less work got done.
    At six in the morning, the POWs had reveille and "bongo," or count, at 6:15 in detachments of 100 men.  After this came breakfast which was a fish soup with rice.  After breakfast, there was a second count of all POWs, which included both healthy and sick, before the POWs marched a mile and half to the airfield.
    After arriving at the airfield, they were counted again.  They went to a tool shed and received their tools; once again they were counted.  At the end of the work day, the POWs were counted again.  When they arrived back at the school, they were counted again.  Then, they would rush to the showers, since there only six showers and toilets for over 500 POWs.  They were fed dinner, another meal of fish and rice and than counted one final time, before the lights were turned out at 9:00 P.M.
  

    The brutality shown to the POWs was severe.  The first Japanese commander of the camp, a Lt. Moto, was called the "White Angel" because he wore a spotless naval uniform.  He was commander of the camp for slightly over thirteen months.  One day a POW collapsed while working on the runway.  Moto was told about the man and came out and ordered him to get up.  When he couldn't four other Americans were made to carry the man back to the Pasay School.  
    At the school, the Japanese guards gave the man a shower and straightened his clothes as much as possible.  The other Americans were ordered to the school.  As they stood there, the White Angel ordered an American captain to follow him behind the school.  The POW was marched behind the school and the other Americans heard two shots.  The American officer told the men that the POW had said, "Tell them I went down smiling."There, the White Angel shot the POW as the man smiled at him.   As the man lay on the ground, he shot him a second time.  The American captain told the other Americans what had happened.  The White Angel told them that this was what going to happen to anyone who would not work for the Japanese Empire.
    The second commanding officer of the detail was known as "the Wolf."  He was a civilian who wore a Japanese Naval Uniform.  Each morning, he would come to the POW barracks and select those POWs who looked the sickest and made them line up.  The men were made to put one leg on each side of a trench and then do 50 push-ups.  If a man's arms gave out and he touched the ground, he was beaten with pick handles.
    On another occasion a POW collapsed on the runway.  The Wolf had the man taken back to the barracks.  When the Wolf came to the barracks that evening and the man was still unconscious, he banged the man's head into the concrete floor and kicked him in the head.  He then took the man to the shower and drowned him in the basin.
    A third POW who had tried to walk away from the detail told the guards to shoot him, the guards took him back to the Pasay School and strung him up by his thumbs outside the doorway and placed a bottle of beer and sandwich in front of him.  He was dead by evening.
    The remains of the POWs who had died on the detail were brought to Bilibid Prison in boxes.  The Japanese had death certificates, with the causes of death and signed by an American doctor, sent with the boxes.  The Americans from the detail, who accompanied the boxes, would not tell the POWs at Bilibid what had happened.  It was only when the sick, from the detail, began to arrive at Bilibid did they learn what the detail was like.  These men were sent to Bilibid to die since it would look better when it was reported to the International Red Cross.
       
    It is known that Larry, Sgt. Albert Edwards, and Pvt. Steve Gados were beaten while on the detail.  Edwards and Gados were both members of B Company.  The exact reason for the beating is not known.  Larry appears to have become ill while on the detail and sent to Cabanatuan, since he next appeared on the roster for the POWs working at Nielsen Field.  Again, the POWs built runways and revetments.

    After the first American planes appeared over the airfield, the detail was ended the next day.  Larry was sent to Japan on the Canadian Inventor on July 4, 1944.  The ship sailed but returned to Manila because of boiler problems  After repairs had been made, on July 16, the ship sailed again.  The ship again experienced boiler problems, and the other ships in the convoy left it behind to make the trip alone.  It arrived at Takao, Formosa on July 23 and remained there for ten days.  While in port, salt was loaded onto the ship. 

    On August 4, the Canadian Inventor left Takao and made its way along the west coast of Formosa to Keelung Harbor.  Arriving there on August 5, it remained in port for twelve days while additional repairs to its boiler were made to its boiler.

    It sailed again on August 17, and had more boiler problems, north of Formosa, near the Ryuku Islands.  This time it made its way to Naha, Okinawa.  After repairs again were made, it sailed for Moji, Japan.  The trip ended on September 4, 1944, after 62 days, when the ship finally arrived at Moji.

    In Japan Larry was held as a prisoner at the Nagoya #3-B, also known as Funatsu, until the end of the war.  In the camp the POWs were beaten for the slightest violation of the camp rules.  The Japanese used sticks, clubs, belts, swords, picks, and leather and rubber belts during the beatings.  The POWs were hit over their heads, necks, arms, legs, buttocks, and backs until, in many cases, until the were unconscious.  Many of the POWs had bruises, black eyes, and scars from being burned.

    They often were forced to kneel on bamboo poles placed under their kneecaps, for long periods of time, while the guards jumped on the calves of their legs to force the poles into the knees more deeply.  They were next kicked and placed in the guardhouse of the time nude in cold weather and had water poured on them.  They were not allowed medical attention while in the guardhouse.  In addition, their food rations were cut, and if a POW somehow escaped, he was returned to the guardhouse and starved.

    The POWs in the camp were used as labor in the mining and refining of lead and zinc.  Nearly all the prisoners were in poor health and suffering from malnutrition, dysentery, and beriberi.  A Japanese sergeant, Takanori Yamanaka, had medical supplies in his possession from the Red Cross but would not issue them to the POWs.  If a POW was put in the guardhouse, he was not permitted to receive medical treatment.  When medical supplies were issued, only half the requested supplies were given out.  The Japanese also would only allow 10 percent of the prisoners to be hospitalized at any time.
    During his time in the camp, one POW by the name of Mann, who had somehow got out of the camp, was recaptured four days later.  He was systematically beaten with fists and clubs, every day for twelve days in the guardhouse and at the end of twelve days he died on August 6, 1945.  Larry was 25 years old when he was liberated.

    One of the more interesting side stories of World War II involved Larry.  In 1941, Larry was out with a friend, Herbert Hans Haupt.  The two men had attended Lakeview High School in Chicago together.  Haupt suggested that they visit a German Bund club he belonged to.  When they entered the club, Larry knew that being there was a mistake.  From the ceilings of the club hung Nazi flags.  Larry got into an argument with Haupt about Hitler and the Nazis.  One reason for the argument was that Haupt had begun to preach Nazi propaganda to Larry.  Things were said and Larry punched Haupt in the nose.  This was the last time that Larry saw Haupt. 

     Harold Hans Haupt would later return to Germany and trained as a spy.  During the war, he was landed by submarine on the coast of Florida.  He traveled to Chicago since his family was there.  Haupt's job was to commit acts of sabotage to cripple the American war effort.  To allow Haupt to perform these acts of sabotage, he took Larry Jordan's name off a list of American soldiers being held as POWs by the Japanese.  The Nazis then created false identity papers for Haupt.  Haupt selected the name because he had been friends with Larry in high school.

     It was at this time that Haupt had a Social Security Card issued with Larry's name on it.  Haupt was unaware that his espionage team had already been betrayed by one if its members.  After Haupt was captured, Larry's mother had to travel to Washington D.C., to testify that Herbert Hans Haupt was not her son.  Haupt was later executed for espionage.  All this took place while Larry was suffering in Japanese POW Camps.

    After Larry was liberated he was told that he was being flown to Hawaii.  After a short stay, he and other soldiers boarded C-54s  and landed at Hamilton Airfield in California.  Before leaving the Philippines, Larry teased the other surviving members of B Company that the important people were being flown home while the less important people were being sent home on troop ships.  After landing at Hamilton Field, Larry was selected to be one of 80 former POWs honored at a ceremony in San Francisco on September 25, 1941.  During the ceremony, they heard from Gen. Johnathan Wainwright who was in New York.  He said, "In the furture, our greatest pride will be these words: I was at Bataan, and then I was at Corregidor."  It should be noted that Larry never fought on Corregidor.

    On the flight from San Francisco, the plane Larry was on flew over Chicago, and he began to protest that it was where he was suppose to get off.  Instead, Larry was flown directly to Washington D.C. to give testimony about the Herbert Hans Haupt affair. 

     Going on with his life, Larry married and worked as a sales representative in Chicago and Maryland.  He was the father of one child.  Larry and his wife divorced, and he returned to Chicago where he died on March 27, 1974.  He was buried at Mount Carmel Catholic Cemetery in Hillside, Illinois.


 


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