Kodaj

Pvt. Steve Kodaj


     Pvt. Stephen Kodaj was born on April 3, 1917, to Michael Kodaj & Sophie Kleich-Kodaj in Chicago, Illinois.  He was the oldest of three sons born to the couple.  He was known as "Steve" to his family and friends.  His family moved to Brookfield, Illinois, where he lived at 4029 South Anna Avenue.  He worked in a nursery as a gardener. 
    On July 16, 1940, he joined the Illinois National Guard because he wanted excitement.  His tank company was called to federal service and sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky to train.  While at Ft. Knox, he trained as a tank driver and assigned to a tank crew.

       In the late summer of 1941, Frank took part in maneuvers in Louisiana.  After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to remain behind at Camp Polk.   None of the members of the battalion had any idea why they were there.  On the side of a hill, the members learned they were being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM.  Within hours, many men had figured out they were being sent to the Philippine Islands. 
    From Camp Polk, the battalion traveled west over four different train routes.  Arriving in San Francisco, the soldiers were ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  On the island, the soldiers were given physicals and inoculated for tropical diseases. Those with health issues were released from service and replaced.
    The battalion sailed, on the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived in Hawaii on Sunday, November 2nd, and had a layover.  The soldiers received passes and allowed to explore the islands.  They sailed again on Tuesday, November 4th, for Guam.  When the ships arrived at Guam, they took on bananas, vegetables, coconuts, and water.  The soldiers remained on ship since the convoy was sailing the next day. About 8:00 in the morning on November 20th, the ships arrived at Manila Bay.  After arriving at Manila, it was three or four hours before they disembarked.  Most of the battalion boarded trucks and rode to Ft. Stotsenburg north of Manila.
    At the fort, the tankers were met by General Edward King.  King welcomed them and made sure that they had what they needed.  He also was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and that they had to love in tents.  The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they arrived.
    For the next seventeen days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline from their weapons.  They also spent a large amount of time loading ammunition belts.  The plan was for them, with the 194th Tank Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.

    The first week of December, 1941, the tankers were ordered to Clark Field to assigned locations.  At all times, two members of each tank crew or half-track crew had to remain with their tank or half-track.
   
The morning of December 8th, the officers of the battalions met and were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor hours earlier.  All the tank crew members of the 192nd  were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield. 
    All morning long, the sky was filled with American planes.  At noon, all the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch parking their planes in a straight line outside the mess hall.  At 12:45 planes approached the airfield from the north.  The tankers on duty at the airfield counted 54 planes.  When bombs began exploding, the men knew the planes were Japanese.  After the attack the 192nd remained at Ft. Stotsenburg for almost two weeks.  They were than sent to the Lingayen Gulf area where the Japanese had landed.

    The tank battalion received orders on December 21st that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf.   Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas.  When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.


    The tank battalion received orders on December 21st that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf.   Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas.  When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tankplatoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.  The tankers were fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and December were at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th. 

    The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th.  On January 1st, conflicting orders were received by the defenders who were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5.  Doing this would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan.  General Wainwright was unaware of the orders since they came from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff. 
    Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River.  Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted.  From January 2nd to 4th, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.
    Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare. 
The tank battalions , on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.

        B Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.
 

    When the defenders of Bataan were surrendered to the Japanese, Steve destroyed his tank.  Instead of surrendering, he escaped to Corregidor.  He was assigned to the 4th Marines and fought on for another month until the Japanese all out attack on the island resulted in the surrender of the American forces there.  When Corregidor surrendered, Steve became a Prisoner of War. 

    As a POW Steve was first imprisoned at Cabanatuan #3.  From Cabanatuan, he was sent to Manila and worked on the Bachrach Garage.  He and the other POWs on this detail repaired equipment for the Japanese.  Steve was considered too sick to work and was sent to Bilibid.  When he had recovered, he was given an physical and determined healthy enough to be sent to another occupied country.  

    On October 5, 1942, Steve and another 1600 POW's were sent to the dock area of Manila,  They spent two days housed in a warehouse on the dock before being boarded onto Tottori Maru

    The ship sailed for Takao, Formosa, on October 7th at 10:00 A.M. passing Corregidor at noon.  The prisoners were divided into two groups. One group was placed in the holds while the other group remained on deck.  The lucky POWs remained on deck.   The conditions on the ship were indescribable, but those in the hold were worse off than those on deck.  The POWs were issued three loaves of bread that were equal to one American loaf of bread.

    On October 9th, the Tottori Maru came under a torpedo attack by an American submarine that fired two torpedoes at the ship.  The captain of the ship maneuvered it and successfully avoided the torpedoes.  The POWs listened as the two torpedoes fired at the ship missed, but another ship in the convoy was hit.  The POWs' meal consisted of three candy bags of hardtack and rice and soup.

    The ship continued its voyage arriving at Takao, Formosa, on October 11th.  The ship remained at Takao for four days before sailing at 7:30 in the morning on October 18th.  It returned to Takao the same day dropping anchor at 10:30 P.M.  The ship sailed again on October 18th and arrived the same day at Pescadores Islands, where it dropped anchor.  It remained off the islands until October 27th when it returned to Takao.  During this stay, the POWs were disembarked and washed down with fire hoses.  During their time in the ship, they were only fed twice.

   The ship sailed again on October 30th back to the Makou, Pescadores Islands.  On October 31st, the ship sailed for Pusan, Korea, as part of a seven ship convoy.  During this trip, the ships were caught in a typhoon which took five days to ride out.  After the storm, the ships were attacked by an American submarine sinking one ship and scattering the others.

    After 31 days on the ship, the Totori Maru docked at Pusan, Korea, on November 7th.  1300 POW's got off the ship and issued new clothing and fur-lined overcoats.  They were sent on a two day train trip north to Mukden, Manchria.  There, they worked in a sawmill or a manufacturing plant.
    The meals for the POWs consisted of a soup made from soy bean.  To supplement their diet, the POWs made snares to catch the wild dogs that roamed into camp.  They did this until a detachment of POWs saw a dog eating the body of a dead Chinese civilian.

    As a POW at Mukden, Steve was sent to Branch Camp #3 which was known as the Shenyang Camp.  There, he worked in a sawmill producing lumber.  Steve delighted in sabotaging the mill to stop its operation.  Even though they were in Manchuria, Steve and the other POWs knew how the war was going.  During his time at Mukden, the only member of B Company Steve was in touch with was William Kindell.

    At some point, Steve cut his finger.  Since the doctors had no medicine to treat the POWs with, the finger became infected.  The infection became so bad that it spread up his arm.  After it was examined by a Japanese doctor, the doctor told him that it would have to be amputated the next day.  According to Steve, another POW told him to put cigarette ash on the wound to draw out the poison.   He did this and to his amazement his arm was better the next day.

    On another occasion, Steve violated a camp rule. For his punishment, he was hit with a bamboo stick on his shoulders and head.  The guard hit him so hard that the stick broke.  He should have fallen but didn't because according to him, "Because if you fall down, they kick your ribs in and your brains out."

    In September of 1945, Steve and the other POWs were liberated by Russian troops.  After he was freed, Steve's family received a letter from him dated August 23, 1945.  This was the first news they had received from him since November 1941.  A month after liberation, Steve was returned to American authorities.  He remained in Asia for one additional month before being returned to the United States on the Simon Bolivar, on October 21, 1945, at San Francisco. 

     Steve was finally discharged, from the army, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois, on May 3, 1946, with the rank of sergeant.  He returned to Illinois and married.  He would move to Oakland Park, Florida, and raise a family. 

    On November 11, 1988, Veterans Day, Steve was awarded the medals he should have received after he was liberated.  One of those medals was the Silver Star.

    Steve Kodaj passed away on March 12, 2005, in Tallahassee, Florida.


 


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