Pvt. Steve Kodaj
Pvt. Stephen Kodaj was born
on April 3, 1917, to Michael Kodaj & Sophie
Kleich-Kodaj in Chicago, Illinois. He was
the oldest of three sons born to the couple.
He was known as "Steve" to his family and
friends. His family moved to Brookfield,
Illinois, where he lived at 4029 South Anna
Avenue. He worked in a nursery as a
On July 16, 1940, he joined the Illinois National Guard because he wanted excitement. His tank company was called to federal service and sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky to train. While at Ft. Knox, he trained as a tank driver and assigned to a tank crew.
In the late summer of 1941, Frank took part in maneuvers in Louisiana. After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to remain behind at Camp Polk. None of the members of the battalion had any idea why they were there. On the side of a hill, the members learned they were being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM. Within hours, many men had figured out they were being sent to the Philippine Islands.
From Camp Polk, the battalion traveled west over four different train routes. Arriving in San Francisco, the soldiers were ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island. On the island, the soldiers were given physicals and inoculated for tropical diseases. Those with health issues were released from service and replaced.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S. A. T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27th. During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, the transport, S. S. Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th. During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line. On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
At the fort, the tankers were met by Colonel Edward P. King, who welcomed them and made sure that they had what they needed. He also was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and that they had to live in tents. The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they arrived. He made sure that they had Thanksgiving Dinner before he left to have his own dinner.
The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
For the next seventeen days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline from their weapons. They also spent a large amount of time loading ammunition belts. The plan was for them, with the 194th Tank Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.
The first week of December, 1941, the tankers were ordered to Clark Field to assigned locations. At all times, two members of each tank crew or half-track crew had to remain with their tank or half-track.
The morning of December 8th, the officers of the battalions met and were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor hours earlier. All the tank crew members of the 192nd were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield.
All morning long, the sky was filled with American planes. At noon, all the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch parking their planes in a straight line outside the mess hall. At 12:45 planes approached the airfield from the north. The tankers on duty at the airfield counted 54 planes. When bombs began exploding, the men knew the planes were Japanese. After the attack the 192nd remained at Ft. Stotsenburg for almost two weeks. They were than sent to the Lingayen Gulf area where the Japanese had landed.
The tank battalion received orders on December 21st that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf. Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas. When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta. The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river. As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening. They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.
At 2:30 A.M., on January 6th, the Japanese
attacked at Remlus in force using smoke which
was an attempt by the Japanese to destroy the
tank battalions. That night the tanks withdrew
into the peninsula with the 192nd holding its
position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could
leap frog past it, cross the bridge, and then
cover the 192nd's withdraw over the
bridge. The 192nd was the last American
unit to enter Bataan.
B Company also took part in the
Battle of the Pockets to wipe
out Japanese soldiers who had
been trapped behind the main
defensive line. The tanks
would enter the pocket one at a
time to replace a tank in the
pocket. Another tank did
not enter the pocket until a
tank exited the pocket.
In March, the amount of gasoline was reduced to
15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the
tanks. This would later be dropped to ten
gallons a day. At the same time, food
rations were cut in half again. Also at
this time, Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen.
Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to
As a POW Steve was first imprisoned at Cabanatuan #3. From Cabanatuan, he was sent to Manila and worked on the Bachrach Garage. He and the other POWs on this detail repaired equipment for the Japanese. Steve was considered too sick to work and was sent to Bilibid. When he had recovered, he was given an physical and determined healthy enough to be sent to another occupied country.
On October 5, 1942, Steve and another 1600 POW's were sent to the dock area of Manila, They spent two days housed in a warehouse on the dock before being boarded onto Tottori Maru.
800 POWs gathered at 2:00 A.M. on October 6th,
and were given rice coffee, lugow rice, and a
big rice ball. After eating and packing
their kits, the POWs marched out of the camp at
2:30 A.M. and received two buns as they marched
through the gate to the barrio of Cabanatuan
which they reached at 6:00 A.M. There, 50
men were boarded onto each of the small wooden
boxcars waiting for them at about 9:00
A.M. The trip to Manila lasted until 4:00
P.M. and because of the heat in the cars, many
POWs passed out.
From the train station, the men were marched to
pier 5 in the Port Area of Manila. Some of
the Filipinos flashed the "V" for victory sign
as they made their war to the pier. The
detachment arrived at 5:00 P.M and were tired
and hungry and were housed in a warehouse for
two days. The Japanese fed them rice and
salted fish and let them eat as much as they
wanted. They also were allowed to wash.
Almost 1700 POWs were boarded onto the Tottori
Maru on October 7th, but the ship did not
sail until 10:00 A.M. the next day and passed
Corregidor at noon. In addition, there
were sick Japanese and soldiers on the
ship. That night some POWs slept in the
holds, but a large number slept on the
deck. Each day, the POWs were given bread
for meals which most ate in one meal, but the
men rationed their water.
The ship continued its voyage arriving at Takao,
Formosa, on October 12th. The ship
remained at Takao for four days before sailing
at 7:30 in the morning on October 18th. It
returned to Takao the same day dropping anchor
at 10:30 P.M. The ship sailed again on
October 18th and arrived the same day at
Pescadores Islands, where it dropped
anchor. It remained off the islands until
October 27th when it returned to Takao.
During this stay, the POWs were disembarked and
washed down with fire hoses.
The ship sailed again on October 30th back to the Makou, Pescadores Islands. On October 31st, the ship sailed for Pusan, Korea, as part of a seven ship convoy. During this trip, the ships were caught in a typhoon which took five days to ride out. After the storm, the ships were attacked by an American submarine sinking one ship and scattering the others.
After 31 days on the ship, the Totori Maru
docked at Pusan, Korea, on November 7th.
1300 POW's got off the ship and issued new
clothing and fur-lined overcoats.
As a POW at Mukden, Steve was sent to Branch Camp #3 which was known as the Shenyang Camp. There, he worked in a sawmill producing lumber. Steve delighted in sabotaging the mill to stop its operation. Even though they were in Manchuria, Steve and the other POWs knew how the war was going. During his time at Mukden, the only member of B Company Steve was in touch with was William Kindell.
At some point, Steve cut his
finger. Since the doctors had no medicine
to treat the POWs with, the finger became
infected. The infection became so bad that
it spread up his arm. After it was
examined by a Japanese doctor, the doctor told
him that it would have to be amputated the next
day. According to Steve, another POW told
him to put cigarette ash on the wound to draw
out the poison. He did this and to
his amazement his arm was better the next day.
On another occasion, Steve
violated a camp rule. For his punishment, he was
hit with a bamboo stick on his shoulders and
head. The guard hit him so hard that the
stick broke. He should have fallen but
didn't because according to him, "Because if you fall
down, they kick your ribs in and your brains
In September of 1945, Steve and the other POWs were liberated by Russian troops. After he was freed, Steve's family received a letter from him dated August 23, 1945. This was the first news they had received from him since November 1941. A month after liberation, Steve was returned to American authorities. He remained in Asia for one additional month before being returned to the United States on the Simon Bolivar, on October 21, 1945, at San Francisco.
Steve was finally discharged, from the army, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois, on May 3, 1946, with the rank of sergeant. He returned to Illinois and married. He would move to Oakland Park, Florida, and raise a family.
On November 11,
1988, Veterans Day, Steve was awarded the medals
he should have received after he was
liberated. One of those medals was the
Silver Star. When he was asked why he
survived, he said, "I
Steve Kodaj passed away on March 12, 2005, in Tallahassee, Florida.