Cpl. J. Robert Martin

     Cpl. James Robert Martin was the son of Harry. A. Martin and Mary O'Brien-Martin.  He was born on January 2, 1918.  As a child he, with his one sister and four brothers, grew up first in Lombard, Illinois, and then moved to 1409 South Sixth Avenue in Maywood.  He was known as "Bob" to his friends.  Bob graduated from Garfield Grade School, in Maywood, and was a 1937 graduate of Proviso Township High School.  After high school he worked in a sandwich shop.
    In 1939, Bob joined the Illinois National Guard's 33rd Tank Company in Maywood to be with his friend, Harry K. Smith.  As it turned out, when the company was federalized on November 25, 1940, only Bob went with the company to Ftort Knox, Kentucky.

    At Ft. Knox, the company became B Company, 192nd Tank Battalion.  There, they would be trained to operate all the equipment of the tank battalion and qualified as a tank driver.  In mid-summer of 1941, the battalion was sent to Louisiana to take part in the maneuvers of 1941. When the maneuvers began, they were unaware that they had been selected for duty in the Philippine Islands to boaster the American military presence there.
        The battalion traveled west by train to San Francisco.  Arriving there, they were taken by ferry to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.  At Ft. McDowell, they were given physicals and inoculated.   Those men found to have a minor medical condition were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th, for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived at Honolulu on Sunday, November 2nd.  The soldiers were given leaves so they could see the island.  On Tuesday, November 4th, the ships sailed for Guam.
At one point, the ships passed an island at night.  While they passed the island, they did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  When they arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables.  The ships sailed the same day for Manila and entered Manila Bay on Thursday, November 20th.  They docked at Pier 7 and the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. 
   At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.

    The morning of December 1st, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field.  Two crew members of each tank remained with their tanks at all times.  On December 8, 1941, December 7th in the United States, just ten hours after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Bob lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Field.  The tanks had been given the duty of guarding the perimeter of the airfield.
    The tank battalion received orders on December 21st that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf.   Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas.  When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.

    On December 22, 1941, Bob was sent north to Agoo as a member of the tank crew of S/Sgt. Al Edwards.  All the members of his tank crew were from Maywood.  It had been reported to the Americans that the Japanese had landed troops near there.  In response, a platoon of tanks under the command of Lt. Ben Morin was sent north to Lingayen Gulf to engage the enemy and to allow the the 26th U. S. Calvary to disengage from the battle.

    Bob, as the tank driver, was sitting next to his friend from Maywood, Henry Deckert.  It was during the Battle of Agoo, that Bob saw Henry die when a 40 millimeter shell hit the machine gun port.  The concussion from the shell came through the port and decapitated Deckert.  Bob was covered in Deckert's blood but continued to drive the tank.  According to members of 17th Ordnance, Bob was in shock when they removed the body of Henry Deckert from the tank.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.

    The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th.  On January 1st, conflicting orders were received by the defenders who were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5.  Doing this would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan.  General Wainwright was unaware of the orders since they came from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff. 
    Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River.  Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted.  From January 2nd to 4th, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.
    During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company crossed over the last bridge which was mined and about to be blown.  The 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it and then cover the 192nd's withdraw. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.
    Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare. 
The tank battalions, on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.

    B Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
    To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.

     On April 9, 1942, the Filipino and American forces on the Bataan were surrendered to the Japanese.  It was on this date that Bob became a Prisoner of War.   Bob recalled that many of the POWs were already ill when they began the march to Camp O'Donnell.  Many of the men were barely able to march.  The prisoners were covered with mud which resulted in sores. Their feet also blistered from the march.

     According to Bob, the heat on the march was intolerable, and those who begged for water were beaten by the guards with their rifle butts because they had asked.  Those who were exhausted or suffering from dysentery and dropped to the side of the road were shot or clubbed to death.

    Food on the march was minimal, when it was given to the prisoners, each would receive a pint of boiled rice.  The Filipino people seeing the condition of the prisoners attempted to aid them by passing food to the Americans.  If the Filipinos were caught doing this, they were beheaded.  By the time the POWs arrived at Camp O'Donnell, they were half starved and half dead.  Bob would spend six weeks at Camp O'Donnell.

    Bob was sent in May of 1942 to Cabanatuan Camp #1.  He would remain there until July of 1943.  Life in the camp was one of endless punishment.  Bob remembered that the prisoners were punched in the mouths, made to stand bareheaded, at attention, in the sun until they passed out.  They were also kicked in the stomach or hit with rifle butts.  Hundreds died everyday due to the torture and poor health.  Each morning, the surviving POWs would see the piled corpses of the men who had died during the night.

    It was while Bob was in this camp that he became extremely ill.  Bob was so ill that he was taken to what was called the camp hospital.  The hospital was a hospital in name only since the POWs had little to no medicine to treat the sick.  Bob was given a place in the hospital next to his friend from high school Bob Bronge.  It was while he was in the hospital that Bob watched Bob Bronge die from dysentery.

    In late July, 1943, Bob was sent to Bilibid Prison in Manila to await transport to Japan.  He was boarded on the Clyde Maru in late July 23, 1943.  The ship sailed and arrived at Santa Cruz, Zambales.  There, it was loaded with manganese ore.   Thre days later, on July 26th, it sailed again. 

   On July 28th, the Clyde Maru reached Takao, Formosa.  On August 5th, it sailed again for Moji, Japan, arriving there on August 7th.  The POWs were marched to a train station on August eight and took a two day trip to Omuta.  Upon arrival in there, they were marched eighteen miles to Fukuoka #17,  In Japan, Bob was given the Bongo number of 98.

    The prisoners at this camp were used as slave labor to extract coal from a mine that had been closed years before because it was considered too dangerous to work.  Work in the mine was dangerous, and as they worked, the miners had rats crawling all over them.

    One day, as Bob worked, there was a cave-in.  Bob was seriously injured and when he could walk again, he was assigned to work in the camp kitchen.  While assigned to the kitchen, Bob was responsible for saving the lives of at least a dozen POWs by bringing them food while they were confined to the camp's internal guardhouse.  The men in the guardhouse were aware of the risk that Bob took to do this.  One of them, Lester Tennenberg, a member of Bob's own tank company, would later speak of Bob's actions for years.  Both men would remain friends for life.    

    To do steal the food, Bob had to sneak pass the Japanese guards without being seen.  He also had to make sure that he did not spill a grain of rice.  If he had been caught, he would have been killed instantly.  The camp mess hall was supervised by Navy Lt. Comdr. Edward N. Little.  The other POWs in the camp considered him to be a collaborator who had turned in other POWs for stealing.  Two of those men, Pfc. Noel Heard, C Company, 194th Tank Battalion, and Pvt. William Knight were executed by the Japanese.

    For Bob, life as a POW was not easy.  Bob had to use every bit of strength that he could muster to stay alive.  With his physical and mental condition getting worse each day, Bob did not know how long he could survive.  He would pray that the war would soon end and that somehow he would make it home.

     One day, Bob witnessed an explosion over Nagasaki.  To him, it was a sign that the war would soon be over.  As he watched, he kept saying to himself that the war was over and that they all would be going home.  Like most of the POWs, Bob believed that if the atomic bomb had not been dropped, he and the other POWs, would have been executed when the American invasion of Japan had begun.
After he was liberated and in the Philippines, Bob sent this telegram home:

"Dear Family:

Am fine. Expect leave for home within three days.  Glad hear all are well. How are brothers John, Harry?  Answer."

    Bob returned to the United States on the U.S.S. Storm King, arriving at San Francisco on October 15, 1945.  He and the other former prisoners were taken to Letterman General Hospital for further treatment.  From there, he was sent to Madigan General Hospital at Fort Lewis, Washington, for processing, and finally to Hines VA Hospitall Hines, Illinois, which was the nearest Veterans Administration hospital to his home.

    Bob married Minnie Faucett and raised a family.  For the rest of his life, the one lasting effect of his experience on Bataan was that Bob relived Henry Deckert's death in his dreams. 

    Bob served the Maywood community as a fireman until his retirement from the Maywood Fire Department.  He and his wife would later move to Florida.
    It should be mentioned that Bob's brother, Harry, and Lt. Ben Morin's brother, Arthur, served together in the 15th Air Force.

    Bob Martin passed away on August 31, 1997, in Florida. 

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