2nd Lt. Thomas Scott Savage

   2nd Lt. Thomas S. Savage was the son of Dr. Robert G. Savage & Margaret I. Neary-Savage.  He was born in September 12, 1917.  With his two brothers and three sisters, he was raised in River Forest, Illinois, and at 536 North Oak Park Avenue in Oak Park, Illinois.  

    In the fall of 1940, Tom, while working as a carpenter, was called to federal service as an enlisted man when his National Guard company was federalized as B Company, 192nd Tank Battalion.  With the company, he left Maywood, Illinois, for one year of training at Fort Knox, Kentucky.  When Headquarters Company was created in January, 1941,  Tom was transferred to the new company.

    During the spring of 1941, Tom's father passed away.  He returned to Ft. Knox after the funeral.   In the late summer of 1941, the battalion was sent Louisiana to take part  in maneuvers.  After the maneuvers, Tom learned with his company that they had been selected by General George Patton for overseas duty.

    With the release of men and officers, because of age, Tom became first sergeant.  This was because the previous first sergeant, Richard Danca, was made second lieutenant.
    The battalion took part in maneuvers in Louisiana in the late summer of 1941.  It was after these maneuvers that they were ordered to remain at Camp Polk instead of returning to Ft. Knox.  It was on the side of a hill that the soldiers learned they were being sent overseas.  Those men 29 years or older were allowed to resign from federal service.  Officers too old for their rank were transferred out of the battalion.
    The battalion traveled west by train to San Francisco.  Arriving there, they were taken by ferry to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.  At Ft. McDowell, they were given physicals and inoculated.   Those men found to have a minor medical condition were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.S. Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th, for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived at Honolulu on Sunday, November 2nd.  The soldiers were given leaves so they could see the island.  On Tuesday, November 4th, the ships sailed for Guam.
At one point, the ships passed an island at night.  While they passed the island, they did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  When they arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables.  The ships sailed the same day for Manila and entered Manila Bay on Thursday, November 20th.  They docked at Pier 7 and the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. 
  At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance.

        On December 1st, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field.  Two members of each tank crew remained with their tanks at all times.  On December 8, 1941, December 7th on the other side of the International Date Line, Tom lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Field.  For the next four months, Tom worked to slow the Japanese conquest of the Philippines.  It was during this time that he became B Company's first sergeant.  He was later received a combat commission as a second lieutenant.

    It is known that HQ Company had three tanks attached to it.  It is believed that Tom was the commanding officer of the three tanks.  The tank battalion received orders on December 21st that it was to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf.   Because of logistics problems, the B and C Companies soon ran low on gas.  When they reached Rosario, there was only enough for one tank platoon, from B Company, to proceed north to support the 26th Cavalry.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.
    The tankers were fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and December were at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th.  While there, the bridge over the Pampanga River was destroyed, they were able find a crossing over the river.
During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company crossed over the last bridge which was mined and about to be blown.  The 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it and then cover the 192nd's withdraw. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan. 
Tom also was also credited with  using his tank to break up a Japanese advance.     
    Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare. 
The tank battalions , on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.    

    On February 3, 1942, Tom's tank was with the tanks of B Company which were guarding the east coast of Bataan, in the Lamay Area, to prevent the Japanese from landing troops behind the battle line.   Each day, "Recon Joe" would fly over their position attempting to locate the tanks.  That morning, Walter Cigoi, who was tired of being "buzzed" by the plane, opened fire on the plane in an attempt to shoot him down.  Twenty minutes later, Japanese dive bombers hit the area with bombs.  Two men died and many others were wounded.  Tom was wounded and awarded the Purple Heart. 

    Tom with the other members of the 192nd became a Prisoner Of War when the Filipino and American defenders of Bataan were surrendered to the Japanese.  The order "crash" was given and the tankers destroyed their remaining tanks.  One round from each tank was fired into each tanks' engine and then the gasoline cocks were opened and hand grenades dropped into the tanks turrets.  

    The members of HQ Company remained in their bivouac for two days before the Japanese appeared.  Once contact had been made, the Americans were ordered out onto the road that ran infront of their camp.  They were ordered to knee along the sides of the road and put their possessions in front of them.  As Japanese soldiers passed the Americans, they took whatever they wanted from them.

    HQ Company was ordered to make its way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.  They were allowed to board their trucks and drive there.  Outside the barrio, they were ordered out of the trucks and sent to a field.

    As the POWs sat in the sun, they began to notice a line of Japanese soldiers was forming across from them.  The watched and realized that the Japanese were going to execute them.  At that moment, a Japanese officer got out of the car and ordered the soldiers to lower their guns.  He climbed  back into the car and drove off.

    Tom and the other POWs were ordered to move to a school yard where they were made to sit in the sun without food or water. They soon realized that behind them were Japanese artillery firing on Corregidor.  The American guns on the island began returning fire.  Shells from the American guns began landing around the POWs.  The men had no place to hide and several were killed.  Three of the four Japanese guns were also destroyed.

    It was from Mariveles, late in the afternoon, that Tom began what would later become known as the Bataan Death March.  Tom and the other POWs were lined up and marched all night the first night.  They marched for days and were told there would be food and water at the next stop; but these were lies to keep the prisoners going.  The first place that they were allowed to stop was near a Japanese machinegun nest.  Corregidor was shelling the area and several of the shells landed among the POWs killing them. 

    During each hour, the POWs received a five minute break.  The Japanese would change guards but kept the POWs moving.  What made things worse for the POWs was as they marched, they came across artesian wells and watering holes, but they were denied their request for water.  The Japanese would chase the POWs away from the wells.  It got to the point that even though the Japanese attempted to keep the prisoners from the water they still went to the wells.  This resulted in the deaths of many men who were bayoneted while getting water.  

    The lack of food and water caused physical disabilities; such as, the prisoners' mouths swelling and their tongues splitting open.  If the prisoners drank the water, they were often killed.

    As the prisoners marched, the guards promised them food and water at the next stop.  The men in Tom's group of POWs went three days and nights without food or water.  What little food Tom and the other POWs got, consisted of burnt rice, tree bark and green banana shoots. 

    At one point during the march, the POWs were stopped.  The Japanese made the prisoners crowd together.  After this was done, the POWs were told to lay down for the night.  Since they were packed in so tightly, it was impossible for them to lay down.

   When the POWs reached San Fernando, they were packed into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane.  Each car could hold forty men or eight horses.  The Japanese packed 100 men into each car.  They were packed in so tightly, that those who died remained standing until the living left the cars at Capas.  From capas, Tom walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell. 

    The conditions in Camp O'Donnell were terrible.  As many as fifty men died each day.  The living worked night and day to bury the dead. At some point, Tom was admitted to the camp hospital, but no reason is given for why he was admitted.

    When Cabanatuan was opened, to replace Camp O'Donnell, Tom was sent there.  It is not known if he went out on any work details.  What is known is that in November 6, 1942, Tom was boarded onto the Nagato Maru for transport to Japan.

    Tom with 500 POWs was packed into the hold of the ship.  In the hold with him were Col. Ted Wickord, Capt. Ruben Schwass, Lts. Ben Morin and Richard Danca, and Sgt. Jack Griswold.
    The ship sailed as part of a three ship convoy the on November 7th.  At some point the hatch covers were put on the holds when the Japanese believed a submarine was in the area.  The POWs felt the explosions from the depth charges through the haul. 
    The convoy arrived at Takao, Formosa, on November 11th and remained in harbor for three days before sailing on the 14th and arriving at the Pescadores Islands the same day.  The ship remained off the islands for two days, because of a storm, before sailing for Keelung, Formosa, on the 17th.  The ship sailed for Moji, Japan, on November 18th.

    Arriving on November 24th, the POWs disembarked and were deloused, showered and issued new clothing.  The POWs were taken by ferry to Shimonseki, Honshu, Japan.  They next took a long ride along the northern shore of the Inland Sea to the Osaka-Kobe area.  Upon arrival, the prisoners were divided into two groups of 500 each.  Tom was sent to Tanagawa Camp arriving there on November 27, 1942. 

    At Tanagawa, the POWs were used as slave labor doing construction.  The Japanese needed a dry dock for submarines and had the POWs tear down a mountainside to do it.

    On September 3, 1943, Tom was sent to Zentsuji with 24 other officers.  The POWs were driven by truck to Osaka.  There, they were taken to Umeda Camp where they spent the night.  The next day Tom and the other POWs took a train to Okayama.  Tom and the other POWs were next put on a ferry and taken across the inland sea to Takamatsu.  They then road trolleys to Zentsuji.  He would be held at this camp until June 25, 1945.  Then he was transferred to Rokuroshi when the camp opened.  He was held there with Lt. Ben Morin.

    It is known that during the fight against the Japanese and while he was a POW, Tom kept a roster of the members of the battalion.  It appears that this roster was a copy of the ship's manifest of the members of the battalion when they sailed for the Philippines.  On the roster, he indicated when and where members of the battalion were wounded and where they died.  He smuggled this document from POW camp to POW camp.

    Tom was liberated by the American Occupational Forces.  After returning to the Philippines, he was sent home.  On his trip home, Tom learned that his mother had moved to Seattle, Washington.  He would move there and reside at 12515 37th Street North East.

    Tom married Martha May Jameson on May 21, 1946, and  become the father of three sons.  He and his wife would later divorce.  One of the lasting effects of being a POW was that Tom fought his own personal demons the remainder of his life.

    Thomas S. Savage died on October 31, 1972, in Ventura, California.


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