Vonbergen




Sgt. Willard W. Von Bergen
    Sgt. Willard W. Von Bergen was born on October 8, 1920, to Henry and Minnie Von Bergen.  With his brother, sister and half-sister, he was raised in Park Ridge, Illinois, at 1939 West Oakton Street.  His father passed away in 1932, and his mother married William Warnke. 
    Willard attended Oakton Grammar School and Maine Township High School, where at fifteen years old, he was a member of the Class of 1936.  He was known as "Von" to his friends.  After high school, he worked at the Federal Reserve Bank in Chicago.  He met his future wife while working there.

    In 1940, Willard. along with his two best friends from Maine Township High School in Park Ridge, Jim Bashleben and Andrew Hepburn joined the Illinois National Guard's Maywood Tank Company together.  The reason he and his friends did this was that the draft act had just passed, and they wanted to fulfill their military obligation.  

    Willard, Jim and Andy went to Maywood and had an agreement that they would not enlist but see what the National Guard had to offer them.  Once in the armory, all three experienced the "divide and conquer" method of recruitment. After entering the armory, each one was taken on a tour by guardsmen and never saw each other until they were ready to go home.  On their way home to Park Ridge, each of the friends admitted that he had enlisted.

    In November 1940, Willard went with the 33rd Tank Company to Fort Knox, Kentucky.  In September 1940, the company had been designated Company B, 192nd Tank Battalion.  During his training, Willard qualified as a member of a tank crew.  He also was assigned to a tank as it's commander.

    Late in the summer of 1941, Ray took part in maneuvers in Louisiana.  According to members of the battalion, during the maneuvers, they broke through the defensive perimeter of the Blue Army and on their way to capture the headquarters of General George Patton when the maneuvers were suddenly canceled.  After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to remain behind at Camp Polk.  None of the members of the battalion had any idea why they were there.  On the side of a hill, the members learned they were being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM.  Within hours, many men had figured out they were being sent to the Philippine Islands. 
    Many of the POWs were given leaves home.  While on leave,
On October 8, 1941, Willard married Helen Connele.  He returned to Camp Polk with Jim Bashleben and Andy Hepburn.  Before leaving the fort, the battalion received the tanks of the 753rd Tank Battalion.
    From Camp Polk, the battalion traveled west over four different train routes.  Arriving in San Francisco, the soldiers were ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  On the island, the soldiers were given physicals and inoculated for tropical diseases. Those with health issues were released from service and replaced.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27th.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   The ship arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, another transport, the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line.  On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
   At the fort, they were greeted by Colonel Edward P. King, who apologized they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they had what they needed and received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own dinner.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
    The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg.  The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.  There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.
    For the next seventeen days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline from their weapons.  They also spent a large amount of time loading ammunition belts.  The plan was for them, with the 194th Tank Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.
    On December 1st, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field.  Two members of each tank crew remained with their tanks at all times.  The morning of December 8th, the officers of the battalions met and were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor hours earlier.  The 192nd letter companies were ordered back to the perimeter of Clark Field. 
    All morning long, the sky was filled with American planes.  At noon, all the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch.  At 12:45 planes approached the airfield from the north.  The tankers on duty at the airfield counted 54 planes.  When bombs began exploding, the men knew the planes were Japanese.  After the attack the 192nd remained at Ft. Stotsenburg for almost two weeks.  They were than sent to the Lingayen Gulf area where the Japanese had landed. 

    On December 21, 1941, Willard's tank platoon engaged the Japanese at Lingayen Gulf.  His platoon was selected because they had just refueled their tanks and had enough gas to make it there and back.  Willard's tank crew was under the command of 2nd Lt. Ben Morin.  The platoon was sent north to Agoo to engage the Japanese on December 22, 1941.  This was the first time American tanks were involved in tank to tank combat in World War II.

    During the engagement, the tanks came under heavy enemy fire.  When Lt. Morin's tank was disabled, the remaining tanks of the platoon attempted to come to his aid.  For some reason, Willard bent over in the turret of his tank.  While he was bent over, a Japanese shell came through the turret.  Had he been standing straight up in the turret, he most likely would have been killed.   Instead, he received minor wounds.  His tank crew spent the next four months attempting to slow the Japanese conquest of the Philippines.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta, where the bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River had been destroyed.  The tankers made and end run to get south of river and ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening but successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.  The tankers were fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and December were at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th.
    The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th.  On December 31st/January 1st,  the tanks were stationed on both sides of the Calumpit Bridge when they received conflicting orders, from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff, about whose command they were under and to withdraw from the bridge.  The defenders were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5 which would allow the Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan.  General Wainwright was unaware of the orders.
    Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces defending the bridges over the Pampanga River and about half the defenders withdrew.  Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted.  From January 2nd to 4th, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.
    At 2:30 A.M., the night of January 5th/6th, the Japanese attacked at Remlus in force and using smoke as cover.  This attack was an attempt to destroy the tank battalions.  At 5:00 A.M., the Japanese withdrew having suffered heavy casualties.
    The night of January 6th/7th the tanks withdrew into the peninsula with the 192nd holding its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it, cross the bridge, and then cover the 192nd's withdraw over the bridge.  The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan, before the engineers blew up the bridge at 6:00 A.M.
    The next day, the battalion was between Culo and Hermosa and assigned a road to enter Bataan on which was worse than having no road.  The half-tracks kept throwing their rubber tracks and members of 17th Ordnance assigned to each battalion had to re-track them in dangerous situations.  After daylight, Japanese artillery fire was landing all around the tanks.
    A composite tank company was formed, the next day, under the command of Capt. Donald Haines, B Co., 192nd.  Its job was to protect the East Coast Road north of Hermosa open and to stop Japanese tanks attempting to use it to overrun the next defensive line that was forming. While in this position, the tanks were under constant enemy artillery fire.  The rest of the tanks were ordered to bivouac south of the Abucay-Hacienda Road.
    When word came that a bridge was going to be blow, all the tanks were ordered out of the area, which included the composite company.  This could have resulted in a catastrophe, but the Japanese did not take advantage of the situation.
    The tanks bivouacked south of the Pilar-Bagac Road and about two kilometers from the East Coast Road.  It had almost been one month since the tank crews had a rest and the tanks had maintenance work done on them by 17th Ordnance.  It was also on this day that the tank platoons were reduced to three tanks per tank platoon.  The men rested and the tanks received the required maintenance.  Most of the tank tracks had worn down to bare metal and the radial engines long past their 400 hour overhauls.
    It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver: 
"Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
    The battalions were sent to cover the junctions of the Back Road and East Road with the Abucay-Heicienda Road on January 25th.  While holding the position, the 45th Infantry, Philippine Scouts, fought its way to the position at 3:00 A.M.  One platoon was sent to the front of the the column of trucks which were loading the troops.  The tanks provided heavy fire so that the infantry could withdraw and inflicted heavy losses on the Japanese.
    Later on January 25th, both the 192nd and 194th held a defensive line on the Bakanga-Cardre-BaniBani Roads until the withdraw was completed at midnight.  They held the position until the night of January 26th/27th, when they dropped back to a new defensive line roughly along the Pilar-Bagac Roads.  When ordered to withdraw to the new line, the 192nd found that the bridge at Balanga, that they were suppose to use had been destroyed by enemy fire.  To withdraw, they had to use secondary roads to get around the barrio and tanks were still straggling in at noon.
    The tank battalions, on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast, while the battalion's half-tracks were used to patrol the roads.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.
    Companies A & C were ordered to the west coast of Bataan while B Company - which was held in reserve - and 17th Ordnance held the southern shore of Bataan.  The tankers were awake all night and attempted to sleep under the jungle canopy, during the day, which protected them from being spotted by Japanese reconnaissance planes.  During the night, they were kept busy with repeated threats both on and off shore.
    On one occasion, a member of the company, who had gotten frustrated by being awakened by the planes, had his half-track pulled out onto the beach and took pot shots at the plane.  He missed the plane, but twenty minutes later, Japanese planes appeared over the location and dropped bombs that exploded in the tree tops.  Three members of the company were killed.
    The tank battalions, on their own, took up the job of protecting the airfields at Cabcaban, Bataan, and Mariveles, since Japanese paratroopers were known to be available.  The tanks and half-tracks were well hidden in the jungle around the airfields and different plans were in place to be used against Japanese forces.  There was only one major alert in March when 73 Japanese planes came over the area.

     B Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
   
To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.  It was also at this time that Gen. Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that a platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor.  Wainwright declined to do this. 
    At about 6:45 in the morning of April 9, 1942, the tankers received the order "crash."  They circled their tanks and disabled them by firing an armor piercing shell into the engine of each tank.  They than opened the gasoline cocks inside the tanks and dropped grenades into them.

    Willard was now a Prisoner of War.  After the Japanese made contact with them, the tankers made their way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.  It was from there that they started what they called "the march."

    The tankers made their way north along the east coast of Bataan.  The first five kilometers were uphill which made the march more difficult.  At one point, the POWs ran past Japanese artillery which was firing on Corregidor which had not surrendered.  When they reached San Fernanado, the POWs were put in a bull pen which was covered in human waste.  In one corner was a trench that served as a toilet.  The surface of the trench moved from the maggots that covered it.
    The Japanese organized the POWs into detachments of 100 men.  They marched them to the train station and packed them into small wooden boxcars known as "forty or eights."  This referred to the fact that each car could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 POWs into each car.
    During the trip to Capas, those POWs who died remained standing until the living left the cars at Capas.  From there, the POWs marched lst miles to Camp O'Donnell.  When they arrived at the camp, the POWs were told by the camp commander that they were not POWs but captives and would be treated as captives.

    It was while he was a prisoner at Camp O'Donnell, Willard went out on a work detail to rebuild bridges in Bataan.  On this detail, he was reunited with his friend Jim Bashleben.  The commanding officer of the detail was Lt. Col. Ted Wickord of the 192nd Tank Battalion, who attempted to fill the detail with as many of his own men as he could.

    According to Jim Bashleben, Willard was working on this detail when he became ill and was sent to Cabanatuan Camp #1.  Records kept by the medical staff show that Willard was admitted to the camp hospital on Sunday, July 5, 1942, suffering from malaria and dysentery and assigned to Barracks 28.  Records also show that he died of dysentery and malaria on Tuesday, August 11, 1942, at 6:30 PM. 

    When Willard's high school friend, Jim Bashleben, was given the chance to send a postcard home as a POW, he said "hello" to Miss Helen Connele.  He hoped by doing this that Helen would know that her husband was dead.  After the war when Jim returned home, Helen told him that as soon as she read his greeting she knew her husband was dead.

    Sgt. Willard Von Bergen's wife and family officially learned of his death on June 1, 1943.  A memorial service was held at Saint Luke's Lutheran Church in Park Ridge, Illinois, on June 5, 1943.

    After the war, the remains of Sgt. Willard Von Bergen were interred in Plot J, Row 4, Grave 13, at the American Military Cemetery outside Manila.





 


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